Upper Indus




J. Hales


Chinese Control Claimed by India
India claimed by Pakistan
Indian Control Claimed by China
Pakistan claimed by India
Chinese Control Claimed by India

Major Habitat Type

Montane freshwaters

Drainages flowing into

Arabian Sea



This ecoregion includes the upper Indus basin on the Tibetan Plateau (China, India, Pakistan).

Justification for delineation

Delineations were determined using a bottom-up approach that employed both published and unpublished field data and expert assessment (Abell et al. 2008; Mirza 1975; Wu & Wu 1992). The delineations of this ecoregion were based on topography and faunal differences between this ecoregion and the rest of India and the rest of the Tibetan Plateau (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2006).

Level of taxonomic exploration

Data unsatisfactory


  • Abell, Robin,M.L. Thieme,C. Revenga,M. Bryer,M. Kottelat,N. Bogutskaya,B. Coad,N. Mandrak,S.C. Balderas,W. Bussing,M.L.J. Stiassny,P. Skelton,G.R. Allen,P. Unmack,A. Naseka,R. Ng,N. Sindorf,J. Robertson,E. Armijo,J.V. Higgins,T.J. Heibel,E. Wikramanayake, (2008). "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Biogeographic Units for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation" BioScience 58 (5) pp. 403-414.
  • Wu, Yunfei;Wu, Cuizhen (1992). "The fishes of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau" Chengdu, China: Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology.
  • Mirza, M. R. (1975). "Freshwater fishes and zoogeography of Pakistan" Bijdragen tot de dierkunde 45 (2) pp. 144-180.