Lower & Middle Indus




J. Hales


India claimed by Pakistan
Pakistan claimed by India

Major Habitat Type

Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and wetland complexes

Drainages flowing into

Arabian Sea

Main rivers to other water bodies

Indus River



This ecoregion includes the Indus basin downriver of Tarbela Dam.

Description of endemic fishes

One recorded endemic. Estimated to contain at least 10 endemics (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2006).

Justification for delineation

Delineations were determined using a bottom-up approach that employed both published and unpublished field data and expert assessment (Abell et al. 2008; Mirza 1975; Talwar & Jhingran 1991). This ecoregion was determined by topography, zoogeographic studies and species lists. The floodplain fauna is different from the Indus Himalayan Foothills [eco 705], and several species traditionally conspecific with those in the Ganges Delta and Plain [eco 709] have recently been shown that they are distinct. This is expected to be the case for more species in this ecoregion (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2006).

Level of taxonomic exploration

The identity of most species considered to be shared with the Ganges basin needs to be critically re-examined (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2006).


  • Abell, Robin,M.L. Thieme,C. Revenga,M. Bryer,M. Kottelat,N. Bogutskaya,B. Coad,N. Mandrak,S.C. Balderas,W. Bussing,M.L.J. Stiassny,P. Skelton,G.R. Allen,P. Unmack,A. Naseka,R. Ng,N. Sindorf,J. Robertson,E. Armijo,J.V. Higgins,T.J. Heibel,E. Wikramanayake, (2008). "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Biogeographic Units for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation" BioScience 58 (5) pp. 403-414.
  • Mirza, M. R. (1975). "Freshwater fishes and zoogeography of Pakistan" Bijdragen tot de dierkunde 45 (2) pp. 144-180.
  • Talwar, P. K. and A. G. Jhingran (1991). "Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Vol. I and II" Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A. A. Balkema.